Arben Lala *

Honored guests! We are gathered here today to discuss a problem as
important as well as sensitive. Topics which I refer to has to do with
Greece's relations with minorities. In particular Cham Albanian minority
Aegean Macedonians. So, the question to be put forward is about evictions
Albanians since 1913-1945 and 1946-1949 Macedonians from Greece. I think that
is a topic of interest and hard about the fact that the Greek state has not yet opened
archives for these cases.
On 16 October 2008, according to media Greece's Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis
set deadline for first mortgages of all properties in Greece. This issue
directly affects property titles Aegean Macedonians and Albanians.
It is about real Cham population, to whom the Greek state holds assets
estate with the so-called "conservative seizure" and Macedonians
Aegean who were expelled during the Greek civil war 1946-1949. As known Cams
and the Macedonians are forbidden to seek their rights belonging to
international law return to their homes and property compensation
used to date by the Greeks.
Instruction hastily at the end of the year by the Greek government to term
on October 16 mortgage documents submitted by the first property more
looks like a knife in the back to prevent the two neighboring countries with Greece, Albania and
Macedonia, which depend in some way by Greek firms for membership in the EU and
NATO. The decision of the Greek government seems biased, considering the fact that the Greek state
prevents Cams and Aegean Macedonians obtaining visas to enter Greece and
so could not hipotekojnë their assets.
Albanian and Macedonian, whose relatives were forcibly expelled from the territories of
Greek government after World War II, to initiate procedures to return
property in Greece, which he claims to be the owner of it, in the first place should
open a case in the Court of First Instance of the city where the property is located and
registered. So absurd and ridiculous, that the claimant is required to be represented
a lawyer who is Greek. In the event that the right is not resolved in the District Court
First, the issue goes to the second level and Lartë.1 Court
Given the many Greek Embassy bureaucracies that hinder
issuing visas for this category of citizens, the length of the proceedings then
assets and Albanians and Macedonians were absorbed forever by the Greek state
as could not be recorded in the period of 16 October 2008.
So, once again Greece member of the European Union, NATO and many
organizations that defend human rights Show that is a state that violates these
rights. History of human rights violations in Greece is painful and has
beginning in the first years of its independence in the nineteenth century.
1 Newspaper, "English", Tirana, August 26, 2008.
1.) Racism against minorities in Greece
Greece had not medieval, renaissance, resistance struggle against invaders
Ottoman. It is always after the fall of Byzantium inhabited by Albanians, Jews, Turks,
romeit (Greeks centuries ago preferred to be called romei than elenas or Greek)
Macedonians, Bulgarians. Who after being selected formed modern Greek state with a
misleading mythological stories. The fact that Greece is spoken in the districts of the eagle family,
Turkish, Hebrew, Macedonian, Bulgarian shows that there is still a population without
although public pressure has been assimilated and is wild.
Jews mostly lived in the city of Thessaloniki where once was also
the largest cemeteries in Europe with over 500 thousand varre2, but this cemetery Greeks
broken and marble tiles built Aristotle University. So, where today
teach thousands of young people in Thessalonica were Jewish cemetery. While during the war
II the majority of Greek Jews handed Germans to be sent through
isolation camps. From about 56 thousand Jews were Salonika in 1941, when
Germans occupied it, a few months concerns were sent to concentration camps 54.
0503 thousand, ie about 96% of the population of this community. Today the Jewish community in Greece
not officially recognized, and has only a small cemetery in Thessaloniki maintained by
Israeli state.
I want to add that the Greeks in the early 1970s have broken in Thessaloniki cemetery
Albanians, Bulgarians and Romanians. These cemeteries have been owned by these
Bulgarian minority is assimilated, self anywhere from Seres area still live some
hundreds of elders who speak Bulgarian.
Greece Turkish minority has diminished little by little. Turks used to live in
Thessaloniki almost assimilated. They do ordinary work sold
Hand Cream tea, salep and pretzel. These Greek citizens of Turkish origin who maintain
their mother tongue live in some booths on street corners older neighborhoods
city. Turks living in the Greek Euro-Thraqi known as the Islamic faith and non-Turkish minorities.
This population of Turkish Islam vetëquhen have come to be represented in the early
1990 with three deputies in the Assembly of the Greek Republic, but these increasingly MP
are recognized as representing Muslim Greek political parties.
Vlachs in Greece are pet minority in terms of power, but that
was not recognized linguistic and cultural rights. They are known as Vlachs, Greeks
(Ellinovllahon). Vlach population in many cases have taken the assets of K
Macedonians after they were forcibly expelled from their homes.
2.) Violence against Albanian minority 1913-1945.
With a racist workmanship Greek state by the end of 1912 and early
19913 have systematically expel Albanians in Greece. It is generally
Albanians Islam. But they also Albanian Orthodox who refused to plead
Greek nationals were massacred or expelled from their homes to live in cities
2 Robert D. Kaplan, "GREECE: West's lover, wife of the East", Tirana, 2002, p. 25.
3 Ibid, p. 26.
Greece depth to assimilate quickly. Albanians were expelled and were
Greek citizen first stripped Greek citizenship and declared lost, people with no address.
Further, you acquired wealth by giving to others. Sequestered lands
decided Orthodox immigrants come from Asia Minor. Albanians who you are
adopted by the Greek state assets are divided into two categories:
a). Albanians you përvetësua wealth unjustly Lausanne agreement
Islamic exchangeable population orthodoxy.
b). Cham Albanian population was called by the Greeks associate with invading
Refugees from 1913 Cham Province.
Law decree 1923-1932 years, Greece adopted the entire assets
Islamic Albanians under the pretext of Lausanne population exchange agreement
between Turkish and Greek Orthodox Islamic. This idea found support in the circular
Greek Ministry of Agriculture, October 1, 1922, which ordered the administration of
Epirus general, that "... refugee families stabilizoheshin properties
Albanian Muslims, "(AYE/A/5 (9). (Governor General of Epirus, the Greek Foreign Ministry,
Janine March 2, 1923). Cham's main centers, as Filat, Paramithi Margelliç
was created specifically for office properties nationalized Albanian Muslims (Conference de
Lausanne sur les Affaires du Pracha Orient, 1922-1923) .4
In early 1926 in Geneva, President of Greece Theodoros Pangalos made a
official statement before the League of Nations which recognize the Albanian minority Greece
and do not call me Mohammedans Albanians living in its territory as population
Turkish. He among other things said: "The independence and the status quo of Albania are
4 Newspaper, "century", Tirana, January 9, 2008.
great interest to Greece, because its policy is the basis for the maintenance of peace in
Balkans ...
Thesis that has been kept from us until today that Albanian Greek orthodoxy is
wrong and kicked by all. With that she took the descent and reached
point of exhaustion, I took appropriate action and blew all societies
vorioepiriote mëshironin extreme ends of this ill thought ".5
On January 18, the Albanian ambassador in Athens, Mit'hat Frashëri got a promise from the
Greek Foreign Minister that he would deal personally with the issue of sharing
Chams, while self z.Pangallos declared Muslim Chams will
excluded from the process of exchange. A month later, in February of the same year,
officially announced and the decision to exclude all the Albanians of Epirus from the mass of
forced exchange and amnesty Cams accused of committing
political propaganda, giving in this way a final settlement,
solutions which satisfy certainly absolutely Albanian side.
The statement of the President of the Hellenic Republic General Theodore Pangalos to
Excluding Cham Albanians from Epirus between Turkish population exchange measures
Muslim Christian Greek population was crucial to the performance of all
issues. Content of the case was moved by the determination of the origin and identity
National Muslim population of Epirus and the inclusion or not to the extent of
forced exchange, the process of its involvement in Greece and respect or
not her rights by the Greek authorities.
Thus, out of "Greek-Turkish" already developed the theme that has to do with
Greek-Albanian relations, which will affect in the future in a
very high degree. Cham Muslim presence in Epirus was a special occasion
and a strong document talks intended to use the Albanian government in order
achieving a satisfactory normalization of its economic goals as belonging
issue pronave.6
But the issue of Albanians in Çameria will not be resolved even though diplomats and
Greek politicians promise. Years following the Greek state in the name of agrarian reform
1925-19277 was ndaloji all those people who had not the right of Greek nationals
agricultural land. Italians, French, Germans, Turks, who had property in Greece
dëmshpërblyen, only Albanians not dëmshpërblyen. After a few years would begin war
II. With the capitulation of Germany Greeks resumed atrocities on the population
Albanian Chameria.
Cham Albanians were expelled in the 1944-1945 Greek state called associate
Germans and collectively took away Greek citizenship, acquire and
assets. With some primitive laws Greece mohoji every human right of all those
Greek citizens who had not received ever restored Greek nationality as
visitor to Greece.
5 Ilir Ushtelenca, "King Zog I of diplomacy", Tirana, 1997, p. 118.
6 Magazines, "albanica", Pristina, May 2007. p. 37.
7 Mentor Nazarko, "THE LAST WAR, properties of Albanians in Greece", Tirana, 2007, p. 50
Greek soldiers wounded outside the city of Preveza in 1913.
During the Greek Civil War 1946-1949 power, between the forces of right and
Communist referenced Greek Albanians who were expelled in 1945 violence
by right-wing forces led by Napoleon Zervas. Historical documents
distinguish requests the President of the Provisional Government of Greece, Marko Vafiadhis who
parashtroji between Enver Hoxha requests to enable drive Chams
fall to the Greek Democratic Army led by communists.
On 24.09.1947, Marko Vafiadhis comes in Tirana in a hurry between Korca
Chairman of the Provisional Democratic Government for help. Marko requires
by Enver Hoxha to send Cham expelled from Greece on Mount Gramoz to
fought alongside the Greek insurgents ...
Marko Vafiadhis comes without any prior notice in Tirana. For this reason, Enver
Hoxha not met, but appointed a member of the Political Bureau to talk to him.
During the meeting Marko Vafiadhi Albanian government submits the following requirements:
1. - Sent to 3000-4000 thousand split the Democratic Army of Greece from 18,000 thousand
living in Albania, expelled by Napoleon forces Zervës.8
2. - From 25,000 thousand Greek refugees who were mostly Macedonian ethnicity
found in Albania, organized in 3-4 center to be sent to help
Democratic Army of Greece.
3. - Continue sending weapons and in the shortest time sent 10-12 balls.
4. - Consider the perspective of economic assistance with food and clothing for the Army
5. - Eliminate existing intermediaries until placed direct links.
Regarding the Chams, the Government considered that can not make
factor support. Cham Albanians would not want to go to war. But even for
those who would like to fight communist forces side, there was a risk of falling
8 Journal Greek, "H KAÈÇÌÅÑÉÍÇ", Thessaloniki, November 28, 1999.
under American influence. For that matter he gave the answer: "so far, it is not
possible, taking into account the interests of the Democratic Army of Greece, but will do
what they could to help the right time to those who had the opportunity ... "9
According to Greek politicians of the time acknowledged that the Chams were expelled from
their homes in Greece from Napoleon racist forces Zervës. At the request of the government
Greek democratic accepted that drive around 18 thousand split, but in fact this number has
been greater. It is important that received massive deportations. Marko Vafiadhis was
a politician with that name because I live about 23 years in the Soviet Union and returned to
Greece in 1983. 1989-1990 was a member of the Parliament of Greece's party
In the years 1972 - 1982 Greek governments issued laws that allowed every Greek citizen
drive to return and take the property or compensation. Of these laws to return
Cham Albanians were expelled Aegean Macedonians as the law stipulated that Pardoned
should have Greek nationality and exile had held the Greek national attitude.
Cham refugees near Delvinës 1914.
a.-A has yet in Çameria Albanian citizens of Greek?
I think that should not be a question arises has split in Çameria because after massacres
19945 Cham Albanian family deeply penetrated in Greece to be rescued
once and state persecution. Autochthonous Albanian Greek citizenship not
only Chameria but also in all Greece.
During my research I met some Greek citizens who were originally
Albanians in Epirus. Konica town which I visited a few times I have met
Greek Albanian origin. I remember that there was Islam and called Ibrahim.
9 Ibid.
He had a cafe in the center of town and his wife was from Albania Leskoviku.
These Greek Albanian origin is not well seen visually by local governments. In
1991 met close to Gumenicës a Greek working with the excavator and spoke in
Albanian. During the conversation deklaroji that his parents were of Albanian origin
Epirus. Cham province has many Greeks who have a family with young women
Albania. Many of these Greeks of Albanian origin to preserve the origin are
married Albanian who immigrated in the early 1990s. Aidonta Village once
called Ftini and is located in the prefecture of Preveza Cham. From this village is
scholar Nikos Stylos who lived for many years in Germany. He asserts
his Albanian origin and speaks the language of the parent, Albanian. Niko Stylos
Greek racism written Albanian children who come from families in 1950 -
1960 and attended Greek school. He said an Albanian newspaper: "The teacher
hit me with a stick, whenever talk arvanitisht (Classifieds, shën.A.Llalla), a stick for a
words ".10
More parents of children who came from Albanian families called to school
from teachers about the progress of their children. They advised not to speak before
children in English language, but talk only Greek. Although under pressure
Such Chams who were rescued Zervës army massacres kept the English language.
Most of Cham Albanians belonging to the Orthodox faith after expulsion
Cams Islam fled to the cities from Cham province. In 1995
in the city of Thessaloniki I met an Orthodox Cham arrived in Thessaloniki after years
1950 and Albania had an uncle in Elbasan belonging to Islam,
while he himself was converted to the Orthodox.
On the border of Greece and Albania during the borderland between Konica and
Leskovik I visited a Hotel-Restaurant "BURRAZANI", whose owners were
Albanian origin. This hotel was in the middle of a dense forest, and was built
only with wood. It was a family business.
These are just some evidence to show that there is still in Çameria Albanian who have
Storm survivors with major sacrifices time frymuar Classifieds.
3.) Expulsion of Aegean Macedonians from their homes in Greece
After Greece expelled thousands of Albanians from their lands, the Greeks began the expulsion of
Macedonians who lived along the border from Florina, Edessa, Thessaloniki and Kilkiz. In
behalf of the civil war (1946-1949) for power between the forces of right (IDEA)
unreserved assisted by UK and U.S. forces left
popular Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) began the massacres in the villages where they lived
Macedonian minority. As a result thousands of Macedonians were displaced from their homes and
took refuge first in Albania and the former Yugoslavia.
Though torn by internal strife, DSE soldiers staged a resistance
heroic, but to no avail in the mountains of Gramosit calf, a little south of the border with
Albania. Today, Gramosi has a plot without vegetation in its ground
10 newspaper "Koha", Pristina, September 10, 2004.
wooded, which was used napalm royal army. The first time that U.S. soldiers
were able to assess the effects of this lënde.11
The document says that by 22 thousand DSE fighter, 14 thousand were Slavic. While
in the wall of the building written Long live the II Congress of NSF
Right-wing forces had Greek kingdom of England and their allies
U.S. military aid worth 353, 6 million, which went 159,922 weapons
Small and 4,130 mortars and balls ... 12
While the army left isolated DSE had benefited from Albania and
other communist countries some mules with rifles and dozens of balls. Isolation strategy
Greek Democratic Army forces in the mountains was wrong and fatal. Intervention
American aviation to destroy resistance forces was crucial.
At the end of the Greek Civil War 1946-1949, 41,970 soldiers were killed
Greek Democratic Army led by communists surrendered 24,300, were caught
23.950.13 slave and fled from Greece to European countries, 70 thousand people, the elderly,
women and children. From the data coming to light in recent years cast doubts
Aegean Macedonians were betrayed by some leaders of the Greek Democratic Army
who were not Greek ethnicity Macedonian. It is suspected that the President of the Government itself
Interim General Marko Vafiadhis helped Greek army right to
Macedonians expelled from Greece. This can also be explained by his rehab
shortly after she returned to Greece and was elected a member of the PASOK party.
Greek Civil War 1946-1949, was particularly tragic consequences for
Macedonian minority who suffered the fate of Albanian minority in Çameria, it
denial of the return of their lands, acquisition of real estate. Ironic is that
Albanian minority were massacred and expelled on charges of collaboration with the occupiers
11 Misha Glenny, "BALKAN HISTORY 1804-1999", Tirana, 2007, p. 544.
12 Ibid.
German. And Macedonian minority were massacred and expelled on charges as
fellow Greek Democratic Army led by Greek communists.
Senior soldier Greek D.Janinicis and the U.S. military commander in Greece Ban Talk before
Greek Democratic Army Staff DSE in Prespa, which is written in Macedonian: "Long live
GENERAL MARKO Democratic Army ".
a. - Aegean Macedonians in Greece today.
In the early 1990s complained Macedonia in international organizations
violation of the rights of Macedonians in Greece. Indeed, along the border between
Greece and Macedonia Florina Greek side to Kilkisit city has some
villages within the family speaking Macedonian and spiritual connection with
Republic of Macedonia.
In 1997 Greek archaeologist and researcher Anastasia N. Karakasidhis has published
book "Fields of wheat hills of blood" devoted to the Aegean Macedonians in Greece.
Researcher Anastasia N. Karakasidhi was born in Greece and has undergraduate studies
graduated from Columbia University. Since the beginning of the first publications for studies
Macedonians in Greece, it faced tough Greek nationalists. Greek newspaper "Stohos"
përshkojini as an "enemy of the Greek people" ... 14
In her work Anastasia N. Karakasidhi writes for several villages basin
Langadhës about 25 km away from Thessaloniki. It brought data cleansing of villages
Macedonian and instead settled immigrants from Asia minor.
14 Anastasia N. Karakasidhis, "FIELDS OF BLOOD hills wheat", Tirana, 2006, p. 6.
Ksilupoli village still has people speaking Macedonian. A villager
from the village claims that he spoke only "Macedonian" until began elementary school of its
Greek. He claimed that his mother had been forced to go to night school
in the 1930s to teach the Greek language while she was pregnant with të.15
There from 1992-1994 in Florina a Greek citizen priest said that was
Macedonian origin, and laid the foundations of a Macedonian Orthodox church, but during a
Talk to a Greek TV channels this priest was arrested at TV studio. After some
long from strangers beaten two old ladies in Florina. As we learned later
they were sisters Macedonian priest said.
From 1993-1994 I worked in construction with a Greek origin master
was Macedonian by villages Kilkizit. He Tell His uncle had left in
years of civil war in Macedonia and was still living there. He often sent
gifts for his family. But was forbidden even in old age to do
visits to relatives and his property in Greece.
In February 2002 I visited Psaradhes Greek village located edge
Lake Prespa. In conversations with villagers noticed that spoke Greek Greek
and Macedonian. Some of them said that years ago when he moved to Thessaloniki and
Athens Macedonian call. These rustic Psaradhes had good relations with
Borderland neighbors Albanians and Macedonians. Also in this lake was a
small island where there was a great had already destroyed that was built sometime
XI century and served Bulgarian Orthodox rite believers. From the boundary of
Kapshtica (Korçë) to Florina eye will hit houses abandoned by
since 1949. These houses are built with mud walls and have been homes
peasants who supported the Greek Communists Democratic Army. After losing
the war in 1949, residents abandoned their homes. Over the years I worked in Thessaloniki
I had a work colleague who had parent Macedonian language which spoke in
home and I accepted his Macedonian origin.
15 Ibid, p. 133.
DSE Army fighters in Mount Gramosit 1948.
4.) Similarities and differences of two minority tragedy.
The tragedy of both Albanian and Macedonian minorities that drive with violence by
Greek state in the years 1944-1949 have many common points and differences.
Common are:
a). Were expelled and massacred by the same Greek national army led by
General Napoleon Zervas.
b). In general their lands settled immigrants from Asia minor.
c). Adopted by the Greek state property collectively.
d). Are not allowed to visit their homes even as tourists.
f). You removed the Greek citizenship collectively.
a). Cham Albanian minority was expelled by the Greek army. While minority
Macedonians by the Greek army to help the Anglo-Americans.
b). Albanian minority did not resist with arms, had no army. While he
Macedonians had almost 2/3 of the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) and made resistance
in the mountains about three years.
c). Albanian minority had no time to take with them when they left the tapis and
other documents proving the value of the property. While he had long Macedonian
take everything as resistance lasted three years.
d). Cham Albanians drive when it came to Albania was not well treated by
government of Enver Hoxha. They were despised by the communist authorities determined through
huts in the slums of suburban cities. While the Macedonians were welcomed by
Government of the People's Republic of Macedonia to the Yugoslav Federation. Taking advantage
a full rehabilitation as free house in the center of cities, jobs etc..
In conclusion
Greece denied the existence of the Turkish minority, Albanian, Macedonian,
Bulgarian Jewish demands from neighboring countries to meet the conditions for the protection of the rights
human. In particular, the Greek minority living in several villages at the foot of a mountain offs
dry in the south of Albania. As well as the Serb minority in Kosovo. While
the state that claims to have democracy in ancient times, several times has been at the center of
International criticism from various human rights violations
to racial and religious. The issue of protection of human rights in Greece
is low to be implemented by the Greek state. Even less those organizations
Greek NGOs called on behalf of human rights protections are not
very active when it comes to the protection of minority rights in Greece
not officially recognized by the state. Greece raises not only against state racism
minorities but also against its citizens belonging to Greek ethnicity, but are
non-Orthodox religions such as the Catholic religion, jakuva, atheist, Protestant,
Jewish. Who are few in number and brutally suppressed by the majority religion
How to resolve the issue Cham think that should be strongly supported officially by
Albanian state structures exerting political pressure through organizations
International. Today, here and listen to the voice of any MP seeking solutions
Cham issue, but these are very few items that get lost in the fog that
raise Greek businesses in Albania, lured with money different politicians. Party
associations and organizations that are established by the community which originated from
Cham provinces are powerless. This is because failed in elections
gain votes Chams themselves are not few in number. So I continue with
Cham issue solution development will take years or decades and have
afraid that will not find a way out for the right solution to this issue that does not belong
Cham community only, but the entire nation.
Aegean Macedonians issue unlike the Cham-paced walks
fast towards a solution. Although generally taps businesses in Macedonia
opened by hand Greek Macedonians are more demanding and fighting for their rights
should enjoy in Greece in comparison with the state and Albanian governments are
kneeling before the Greek policy pressures. Macedonians in Greece have failed to
establish the association and the Macedonian party. According spoken Macedonian minority in
Greece has achieved in the last election win over 7000 thousand votes. Although the number of
votes is small it has a great importance to this minority because it has determined that
Greece still exists although officially denied by Athens. All of these
Macedonian government efforts and its own minority living in Greece